4. Tolba R., Fontenot A. (2019) Intercostal Nerve Block. In: Deer T., Pope J., Lamer T., Provenzano D. (eds) Deer's Treatment of Pain. Springer, Cham.
The intercostal nerve block is an attractive option for clinicians and patients alike as it is a technically simple block to perform and provides effective analgesia in patients with thoracic and upper abdominal pain. While it is associated with its own risks of complications including pneumothorax, hematoma, and local anesthetic toxicity, these risks tend to occur rarely and can be further reduced with operator experience and utilization of image guidance. In the appropriate patient population, intercostal nerve blocks can be utilized, in conjunction with general anesthesia, to improve postoperative pain control, hasten recovery, and improve overall outcomes and patient satisfaction.